|Year : 2021 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 73-74
An introduction to nanotechnology in orthopedics
Alok Chandra Agrawal
Department of Orthopaedics, AIIMS, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India
|Date of Submission||01-Dec-2021|
|Date of Acceptance||09-Dec-2021|
|Date of Web Publication||27-Dec-2021|
Dr. Alok Chandra Agrawal
AIIMS, Raipur, Chhattisgarh
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
Agrawal AC. An introduction to nanotechnology in orthopedics. J Orthop Traumatol Rehabil 2021;13:73-4
Nanotechnology is emerging as a major breakthrough in orthopedic practice. It is the applications done by the manipulation of particles and atoms of the size from 1 to 100 nanometers. This was made possible by the invention of scanning and tunneling microscope by IBM in 1981 through which one can see and manipulate individual atoms. The process makes the material stronger, lighter, with greater chemical reactivity and with an increased control of light spectrum.
Nanometer is 1.0 × 10 (−9) in the SI length unit matter. It can be explained as that if a nano is of the size of a marble then 1 m will be of the size of the whole earth. The concept of nanotechnology was first given by Richard Feynman (1959) also respected as the Father of Nanotechnology, although the term was coined by Norio Taniguchi in the year 1974.
Nanotechnology has impacted all the spheres of clinical practice including analytical and imaging tools, nanomaterial devices, therapeutic and targeted drug delivery systems, drug eluting systems and safety, environmental and manufacturing uses.
Nanotechnology applications in orthopedics:
- Surgical blades made with diamond nano layer makes it thinner, stronger, noncorrosive and can be used with less penetration force
- Nano-needles with good ductility, strength, and resist corrosion (Wilkinson 2004). Needles are made of stainless-steel and nano-sized particles of 1–10 nm size quasi crystals by thermal aging techniques acquire the above characteristics
- Electro spun drug-eluting sutures with or without bupivacaine has been developed for postoperative pain management and prevention of infection
- Aceclofenac and/or insulin incorporated with the sutures exhibit 4% and 15% loading, release the drug for 7 and 10 days, respectively. Aceclofenac reduces epi-dermal hyperplasia and cellularity in skin inflammation and insulin shows wound-healing properties with improved cellular migration
- Nanofabricated drains
- Conduits for focused direction in nerve repair
- Catheters made of nanotube-based polymer reinforced with multiwalled carbon NTs used as a filler in nylon 12 (matrix) prevent thrombus formation in vascular surgeries
- Woven fabrics and textiles using carbon nanotubes and Wound care delivery platforms can be used for healing of chronic wounds
- Silver based nanoparticles are effective against multidrug-resistant organisms and have low systemic toxicity. Pure silver nanoparticles markedly increases the rate of silver ion release,,,,
- Nitric oxide (NO)-delivering nanoparticles have a broad-spectrum antibacterial property against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The capability of NO in destroying Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) biofilms was described by Miller et al., and NO-releasing small molecules promote cell dispersal in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms (Barraud et al.)
- Osseo integration of implant materials
- Repair and regeneration of meniscus
- Osteochondral defects
- Intervertebral disk replacements
- Targeted drug delivery in the treatment of bone cancers
- Enhances bioavailability of nanosized calcium carbonate and calcium citrate, reduces the risk of osteoporosis and are used for treating osteoporotic vertebral fractures,,
- Vertebroplasty and Kyphoplasty are being done with bone fillers, injectable Nano-materials or polymethyl-methacrylate bone cement. Developments of calcium phosphate cement and calcium sulfate cement with improvement in characteristics of bone cements have better clinical applications
- Stem cells and regenerative medicine too is benefitted with biodegradable and bio absorbable scaffolds being prepared by nanotechnology.
Health care in India is undergoing major advancements with the advent of stem cells and regenerative medicine, artificial intelligence and robotics and finally nanotechnology affecting all the aspects of life and health care. With advances in gene delivery, biomedical imaging and diagnostic biosensors, patient care will be soon enhanced and play a crucial role for health and human care.
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