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 Table of Contents  
EDITORIAL
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 73-74

An introduction to nanotechnology in orthopedics


Department of Orthopaedics, AIIMS, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India

Date of Submission01-Dec-2021
Date of Acceptance09-Dec-2021
Date of Web Publication27-Dec-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Alok Chandra Agrawal
AIIMS, Raipur, Chhattisgarh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jotr.jotr_123_21

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How to cite this article:
Agrawal AC. An introduction to nanotechnology in orthopedics. J Orthop Traumatol Rehabil 2021;13:73-4

How to cite this URL:
Agrawal AC. An introduction to nanotechnology in orthopedics. J Orthop Traumatol Rehabil [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Oct 2];13:73-4. Available from: https://www.jotr.in/text.asp?2021/13/2/73/333552



Nanotechnology is emerging as a major breakthrough in orthopedic practice. It is the applications done by the manipulation of particles and atoms of the size from 1 to 100 nanometers. This was made possible by the invention of scanning and tunneling microscope by IBM in 1981 through which one can see and manipulate individual atoms. The process makes the material stronger, lighter, with greater chemical reactivity and with an increased control of light spectrum.

Nanometer is 1.0 × 10 (−9) in the SI length unit matter. It can be explained as that if a nano is of the size of a marble then 1 m will be of the size of the whole earth. The concept of nanotechnology was first given by Richard Feynman (1959) also respected as the Father of Nanotechnology, although the term was coined by Norio Taniguchi in the year 1974.[1]

Nanotechnology has impacted all the spheres of clinical practice including analytical and imaging tools, nanomaterial devices, therapeutic and targeted drug delivery systems, drug eluting systems and safety, environmental and manufacturing uses.

Nanotechnology applications in orthopedics:

  1. Surgical blades made with diamond nano layer makes it thinner, stronger, noncorrosive and can be used with less penetration force
  2. Nano-needles with good ductility, strength, and resist corrosion (Wilkinson 2004). Needles are made of stainless-steel and nano-sized particles of 1–10 nm size quasi crystals by thermal aging techniques acquire the above characteristics[2]
  3. Electro spun drug-eluting sutures with or without bupivacaine has been developed for postoperative pain management and prevention of infection
  4. Aceclofenac and/or insulin incorporated with the sutures exhibit 4% and 15% loading, release the drug for 7 and 10 days, respectively. Aceclofenac reduces epi-dermal hyperplasia and cellularity in skin inflammation and insulin shows wound-healing properties with improved cellular migration
  5. Nanofabricated drains
  6. Conduits for focused direction in nerve repair
  7. Catheters made of nanotube-based polymer reinforced with multiwalled carbon NTs used as a filler in nylon 12 (matrix) prevent thrombus formation in vascular surgeries
  8. Woven fabrics and textiles using carbon nanotubes and Wound care delivery platforms can be used for healing of chronic wounds
  9. Silver based nanoparticles are effective against multidrug-resistant organisms and have low systemic toxicity. Pure silver nanoparticles markedly increases the rate of silver ion release[3],[4],[5],[6],[7]
  10. Nitric oxide (NO)-delivering nanoparticles have a broad-spectrum antibacterial property against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The capability of NO in destroying Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Scientific Name Search  (MRSA) biofilms was described by Miller et al.,[8] and NO-releasing small molecules promote cell dispersal in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms (Barraud et al.)[9]
  11. Osseo integration of implant materials
  12. Repair and regeneration of meniscus
  13. Osteochondral defects
  14. Intervertebral disk replacements
  15. Targeted drug delivery in the treatment of bone cancers
  16. Enhances bioavailability of nanosized calcium carbonate and calcium citrate, reduces the risk of osteoporosis and are used for treating osteoporotic vertebral fractures[10],[11],[12]
  17. Vertebroplasty and Kyphoplasty are being done with bone fillers, injectable Nano-materials or polymethyl-methacrylate bone cement. Developments of calcium phosphate cement and calcium sulfate cement with improvement in characteristics of bone cements have better clinical applications
  18. Stem cells and regenerative medicine too is benefitted with biodegradable and bio absorbable scaffolds being prepared by nanotechnology.


Health care in India is undergoing major advancements with the advent of stem cells and regenerative medicine, artificial intelligence and robotics and finally nanotechnology affecting all the aspects of life and health care. With advances in gene delivery, biomedical imaging and diagnostic biosensors, patient care will be soon enhanced and play a crucial role for health and human care.



 
  References Top

1.
Mariappan N. Recent trends in nanotechnology applications in surgical specialties and orthopedic surgery. Biomed Pharmacol J 2019;12:28538.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Wilkinson JM. Micro- and nanotechnology fabrication processes for metals. Med Device Technol 2004;15:21-3.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Melaiye A, Youngs WJ. Silver and its application as an antimicrobial agent. Expert Opin Ther Pat 2005;15:125-30.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Atiyeh BS, Costagliola M, Hayek SN, Dibo SA. Effect of silver on burn wound infection control and healing: Review of the literature. Burns 2007;33:139-48.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Neal AL. What can be inferred from bacterium-nanoparticle interactions about the potential consequences of environmental exposure to nanoparticles? Ecotoxicology 2008;17:362-71.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Jain J, Arora S, Rajwade JM, Omray P, Khandelwal S, Paknikar KM. Silver nanoparticles in therapeutics: Development of an antimicrobial gel formulation for topical use. Mol Pharm 2009;6:1388-401.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
DeRosa F, Kibbe MR, Najjar SF, Citro ML, Keefer LK, Hrabie JA. Nitric oxide-releasing fabrics and other acrylonitrile-based diazeniumdiolates. J Am Chem Soc 2007;129:3786-7.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Miller C, McMullin B, Ghaffari A, Stenzler A, Pick N, Roscoe D, et al. Gaseous nitric oxide bactericidal activity retained during intermittent high-dose short duration exposure. Nitric Oxide 2009;20:16-23.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Barraud N, Schleheck D, Klebensberger J, Webb JS, Hassett DJ, Rice SA, et al. Nitric oxide signaling in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms mediates phosphodiesterase activity, decreased cyclic di-GMP levels, and enhanced dispersal. J Bacteriol 2009;191:7333-42.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Boger A, Bohner M, Heini P, Verrier S, Schneider E. Properties of an injectable low modulus PMMA bone cement for osteoporotic bone. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2008;86:474-82.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Wang X, Ye J, Wang Y, Chen L. Reinforcement of calcium phosphate cement by bio-mineralized carbon nanotube. J Am Ceram Soc 2007;90:962-4.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Pal N, Quah B, Smith PN, Gladkis LL, Timmers H, Li RW. Nano-osteoimmunology as an important consideration in the design of future implants. Acta Biomater 2011;7:2926-34.  Back to cited text no. 12
    




 

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